I don't think I am communicating correctly to Gizmo. He just doesn't get direct turns. I am using phases of eyes, leg, rein, then carrot stick. I have just recently started riding with carrot stick so maybe after a couple of sessions he will understand. He really isn't refusing in an ugly way, he just keeps on his track and either ignores my ques or doen't understand them. I will keep at it though. I remember starting new things with him on the ground and it taking a while to sink in.